- FieldworkFrom
*Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology*

There is a troubled relationship between the representation of anthropological fieldwork and the actuality of any particular fieldwork. In sober fact, fieldwork can take as many forms as there are anthropologists, projects, and circumstances. - Content AnalysisFrom
*The A-Z of Social Research*

Content analysis involves the description and analysis of text in order to represent its content. This takes the form of enumeration, such as counting the frequency of words and the number of column inches, and more qualitative assessment of the words and terms used, as undertaken in certain forms of discourse analysis. - FieldnotesFrom
*Key Concepts in Ethnography*

Fieldnotes are the written record of the observations, jottings, full notes, intellectual ideas, and emotional reflections that are created during the fieldwork process. - Genealogical MethodFrom
*Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology*

The method required extensive interviewing of named individuals in order to: (1) collect vital statistics among a non-literate population, and (2) record their pedigrees, which reflected rights and responsibilities relating primarily to descent, succession, and inheritance. - InterviewsFrom
*The A-Z of Social Research*

Interviews are one of the most widely used and abused research methods. They provide a way of generating data by asking people to talk about their everyday lives. Their main function is to provide a framework in which respondents can express their own thoughts in their own words. - Participant ObservationFrom
*Key Concepts in Ethnography*

Participant observation is the main method of ethnography and involves taking part as a member of a community while making mental and then written, theoretically informed observations.

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Qualitative research seeks to understanding some aspect of social life, and its methods (usually) generate words, rather than numbers, as data for analysis.

For researchers more familiar with quantitative methods, which aim to measure something (such as the percentage of people with a particular disease in a community, or the number of households owning a bed net), the aims and methods of qualitative research can seem imprecise. Common criticisms include:

- samples are small and not necessarily representative of the broader population, so it is difficult to know how far we can generalise the results;
- the findings lack rigour;
- it is difficult to tell how far the findings are biased by the researcher’s own opinions.

Qualitative methods generally aim to understand the experiences and attitudes of patients, the community or health care worker. These methods aim to answer questions about the “what,” “how, “ or “why” of a phenomenon rather than “how many” or “how much,” which are answered by quantitative methods.

Qualitative researchers findings are collected through a variety of methods, and often, a researcher will use at least two or several of the following while conducting a qualitative study.

Direct observation: With direct observation, a researcher studies people as they go about their daily lives without participating or interfering.

In-depth interviews: Researchers conduct in-depth interviews by speaking with participants in a one-on-one setting. Sometimes a researcher approaches the interview with a predetermined list of questions or topics for discussion but allows the conversation to evolve based on how the participant responds.

Ethnographic observation: Ethnographic observation is the most intensive and in-depth observational method. This approach comes mostly from the field of anthropology. The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture. Originally, the idea of a culture was tied to the notion of ethnicity and geographic location (e.g., the culture of the Trobriand Islands), but it has been broadened to include virtually any group or organization. That is, we can study the "culture" of a business or defined group (e.g., a fraternity or a basketball team).

Open-ended surveys: While many surveys are designed to generate quantitative data, many are also designed with open-ended questions that allow for the generation and analysis of qualitative data.

- Ethnography: TopicThe word ‘ethnography’ has a double meaning in anthropology: ethnography as product (ethnographic writings – the articles and books written by anthropologists), and ethnography as process (participant observation or fieldwork).
- Case StudyFrom
*Key Concepts in Ethnography*

A case study investigates a few cases, or often just one case, in considerable depth. In ethnography, case studies are used in various ways to illuminate themes or draw inferences. - CodingFrom
*Key Concepts in Ethnography*

Coding is a euphemism for the sorting and labelling which is part of the process of analysis. - ReflexivityFrom
*The A-Z of Social Research*

The ‘problem’ is that ethnographers are part of the social world they study and do not collect uncontaminated data, the ‘solution’ is that they should situate the data by reflecting on how their presence and other contingencies helped to create the data.