Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Decide what kind of information you need from your answerable questions such as these questions:
- Who are at greatest risk within your population of a specific country for your health topic?
- What is the prevalance of the global health topic within your population?
- Provide specific examples of how global health topic is addressed within your population.
- How does the global health topic impact the specific country?
- Identify cultural implications and how the health topic is being addressed by other countries.
The first step is to identify your information need. With health research, form an answerable health question. It will help you focus on finding credible information.
When formulating an answerable question, consider the context of your question by considering the following questions:
- Who is your audience: is it a population, or is it an individual, such as a patient?
- How is the information going to be used by a population or a patient?
- What is the health topic (is it looking at the prevention of a health condition, is it about the treatment of a health condition, etc.?)
- What resources should be consulted to answer the complexity of your question?
As a health practitioner you will have knowledge and access to credible resources your patient or population may ask about, such as evidence-based guidelines, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials.
- Tip: Library Article Resources are an excellent place to start. See the Library's Research Databases.
Rating System for the Levels of Evidence
Rating System for the Hierarchy of Evidence / Levels of Evidence
The assumption is that a health practitioner knows the right thing to do. This is called ‘clinical judgment’. The assumption is, you are able to assimilate all you have learned from your education, training, research, personal experiences, and conversations, so be prepared to ask ‘What is the evidence to support my question?"
- Level I — Evidence for a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant RCTs or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs.
- Level II — Evidence obtained from one well-designed controlled trials without Randomization
- Level III — Evidence obtained from one well-designed controlled trials without Randomization
- Level IV — Evidence from well-designed case-control and cohort studies
- Level V — Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive or qualitative study
- Level VI — Evidence from single descriptive or qualities study
- Level VII — Evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2014). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Public Health Policies
Air Pollution: Topic
Contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health.
Biodiversity is generally used to refer to all aspects of variability evident within the living world, including diversity within and between individuals, populations, species, communities, and ecosystems.
Emerged out of concerns over pollution, global warming, soil erosion, deforestation, waste disposal, and resource depletion.
Food Poisoning: Topic
Acute illness following the eating of foods contaminated by bacteria, bacterial toxins, natural poisons, or harmful chemical substances.
Health Care: Topic
Health care refers to services provided by medical professionals aimed at promoting physical and mental welfare, through the prevention, treatment, and management of illness.
From Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health and Medicine
Health promotion is any planned combination of educational, political, regulatory and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, or communities.
Human Nutrition: Topic
Securing adequate food supplies and necessary nutrition is a global concern. The production, distribution, and consumption of food are matters that concern governments, corporations, and individuals everywhere.
Human Rights: Topic
A right is an entitlement that is usually encoded in a legal context (see law). One can distinguish between human rights and citizenship rights.
Process of conferring immunity to infectious disease by artificial methods, in other words making someone not liable to catch a disease.
Industrial health and safety
From McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
An interdisciplinary field that focuses on preventing occupational illnesses and injuries.
The concept of pollution consists of the inappropriate or undesirable mixing of items or elements that may in themselves be quite appropriate or desirable.
Science and Public Health
From the Encyclopedia of American Studies
The connection between science and the health of the American public evolved late in the nineteenth century. Innovations during the twentieth century brought radical changes to health care.
Standard of Living: Topic
Level of consumption that an individual, group, or nation has achieved.
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
The food stamp program is a federal program to help low-income people buy food.
Means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
Water Pollution: Topic
Contamination of water resources by harmful wastes.
Process or activity by which water is provided for some use, e.g., to a home, factory, or business. The term may also refer to the supply of water provided in this way.