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Citations, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property: Plagiarism and the MVC Academic Dishonesty Policy

Is It Plagiarism?

Plagiarism: Taking credit for someone’s intellectual work or ideas

Why Should You Care about Plagiarism?

  • Students can fail a class or be suspended from the university if they commit plagiarism at MSU

  • Professionals can be sued or lose a job if they commit plagiarism

  • In American society, it is generally expected to give others credit for their work

When Writing a Paper or Preparing for a Presentation, Ask Yourself:

  • Is this my idea or did the idea come from another source (like a book or website)?

Common Knowledge

Common knowledge conisists of facts and ideas that most people already know do not need to be cited. For example:

  • The elephant is the symbol of the Republican Party

  • January is one of the coldest months of the year in Minnesota

Avoiding Plagiarism

  • If another person or entity created the work or idea, you must give them credit for creating the information.

  • Two types of plagiarism to avoid in class assignments…

Plagiarism: Using Exact Words Without Quotation Marks

  • If you copy phrases or sentences exactly from books, journals, or websites, place quotation marks around the copied phrase or sentence

  • Cite the original source in the paragraph and work cited/references page

APA Example

In-Text (within the paper):
Collective intelligence through the Internet illustrates "No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity" (Lévy, 1997, p. 20).

References Page Citation:
Lévy, P. (1997). Collective intelligence: Mankind's emerging world in cyberspace. New York: Plenum Trade.

MLA Example

In-Text (within the paper):
Collective intelligence through the Internet illustrates "No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity" (Lévy 20).

Works Cited Page Citation
Lévy, Pierre. Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace. Plenum Trade, 1997. 

Plagiarism: Re-wording Another Person’s Ideas Without Citing Them as the Source

  • If you use another person's work or ideas, but you rephrase with your own words, cite the original source in the paragraph and work cited/references page

APA Example

In-Text (within the paper):
Information in today's society flows from, and into, multiple media technologies (Jenkins, 2006, p. 2-13).

References Page Citation:
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press.

MLA Example

In-Text (within the paper):
Information in today's society flows from, and into, multiple media technologies (Jenkins 2-13).

Works Cited Page Citation:
Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide.  New York University Press, 2006.

Common Knowledge

<  The Credible Hulk always checks his sources!

Common knowledge is information that most educated people, including you, know without research. Common knowledge does not need to be cited.  Facts such as a basic biography of an author, historic dates, or widely acknowledged scientific facts, do not need to be cited.

It is important to remember that common knowledge varies depending on author, audience, or discipline.  What is common knowledge to a biologist is not common knowledge to an economist. Some examples of common knowledge:

  • Barack Obama is the President of the United States.

  • Kim Kardashian is a reality television star.

  • The boiling point of water is 212°F.

Quoting

A quotation is a direct, word-for-word, copy from a source. Use quotations sparingly; never have your writing contain more than 25% quotations. When to use quotations:

  • If summarizing or paraphrasing cannot capture the essence or meaning of the text 

  • To retain a specific or unique phrasing used by the source's author

  • If you are analyzing the text itself (often in English or language classes)

How to use quotations:

  • Place quotation marks around the entire word-for-word passage, whether it's a phrase or a sentence.

  • Attribute with an in-text citation

  • If your quotation is longer, check with your citation style guide to see if additional formatting is necessary (block quotations, for example).  

Paraphrasing

"A paraphrase precisely restates in your own words the written or spoken words of someone else," (Troyka 140). You must do more than change a few words from the original quotation or passage.

  • Do not include your own interpretation or analysis.

  • Restate the original material in its entirety.

  • Reproduce the source's ideas, analysis, or emphases.

  • Expect a paraphrase to be as long as or longer than the original stated text.

  • More thorough and detailed than a summary.

  • Citing the source: using in-text (parenthetical) citation at the end of the summary and a complete citation in the Works Cited or References page.

Summarizing

A summary is a brief statement of the main points of the original source.  Summaries DO NOT include supporting evidence or details, and are very short by nature.

  • Putting the main idea of the source material into your own words.  When reading ask: Who? What? When? Where?

  • Retaining the key relevant element of the original material. Do not include your interpretation/analysis.  The summary should present material in a neutral fashion.

  • Use your own words.  Do not pull quotations from text.

  • Citing the source: using in-text (parenthetical) citation at the end of the summary and a complete citation in the Works Cited or References page.

The following definition of plagiarism and academic dishonesty comes from the 2019-2020 Academic Catalog.

Academic integrity is expected and required of all students. Students and faculty are responsible and accountable for personally upholding that integrity. Academic dishonesty will not be tolerated, and students found to have engaged in academic dishonesty will be disciplined according to this policy.

Types of Academic Dishonesty. Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, the following:

  • Copying from another student in a test or examination situation
  • Using unauthorized material or aids in the preparation of an assignment or project
  • Possessing unauthorized material or aids in a test or examination situation
  • Allowing another person to take a test or examination in one’s place; taking a test or examination in another person’s place
  • Altering or falsifying academic records in any way
  • Submitting false medical, academic or other documentation required by the college
  • Improperly obtaining through theft, bribery, collusion, or otherwise any test or examination paper prior to the date and time for writing such test or examination
  • Aiding, assisting, or encouraging another to engage in an act of academic dishonesty
  • Plagiarizing materials or works, in whole or in part, prepared by another person without citing appropriate reference credit
  • Copying and submitting, in whole or in part, the work of another in an assignment, report, project, etc. as one’s own.*
  • Claiming to have completed assigned tasks that were, in fact, completed by another person.*
  • Failing to accurately document information, wording or visual images obtained on the World Wide Web.*
  • Violating federal copyright laws including unauthorized duplication of copyrighted materials.
  • *At the instructor’s discretion, so called “self-plagiarism,” or submitting work that was written or completed for one instructor or class to a different instructor or class without the instructor’s knowledge and approval.

When an instructor has reason to believe a student has engaged in academic dishonesty, the instructor will:

  1. Confer with student, explain why the instructor believes that academic dishonesty has occurred, and provide support for this assertion.
  2. Allow the student to provide an explanation, including supporting evidence (if any).
  3. Evaluate the student’s explanation and supporting evidence (if any).
  4. Make a determination as to whether a violation of the Academic Dishonesty Policy has occurred. If there is no finding of a policy violation, the matter will be deemed resolved upon written notification of the student. If there is a finding of a policy violation, the instructor (and division chair/dean/graduate program director, if applicable) should complete the Academic Dishonesty Documentation Form.
    1. The instructor will ascertain from the Vice President of Academic Affairs’ assistant whether the student has previously been found to have violated the Academic Dishonesty Policy while enrolled at the College.
    2. If the student has no other substantiated violations of the policy, the instructor will apply an appropriate penalty (see the “Penalties” section below for a list of possible penalties that may be applied when there is a finding of academic dishonesty). The instructor should give due consideration to the seriousness of the offense as well as the impact of the penalty imposed on the student’s education.
    3. If the student has one previous violation of the policy, the instructor should consult with the division chair/dean/graduate program director to determine the appropriate penalty.
    4. If the student has two previous violations of the policy, the automatic penalty is expulsion from the College. The Vice President of Academic Affairs should be notified immediately.
  5. 5. Notify the student in writing of the decision as to whether a policy violation has occurred, including any penalties imposed (if applicable). If a violation has occurred, complete and present the Academic Dishonesty Documentation Form to the student. The student’s signature serves as verification of notification. The student may also provide a written response on the form.
  6. Provide copies to the student, division chair/dean/graduate program director (if requested), and the Vice President of Academic Affairs.

Penalties

A student guilty of cheating will be subject to a penalty appropriate to the nature and seriousness of the offense. A record of all such cases will be kept in the Vice President of Academic Affairs Office. Second offenses for the same individual will be subject to a more serious penalty than the one previously imposed. The following penalties may be applied:

  • Reprimand.
  • Reduction in grade on the assignment without the opportunity to resubmit.
  • Requirement that the student repeats and resubmits the same or alternate assignment. In such cases, the grade or mark awarded will be reduced or limited at the discretion of the faculty member.
  • Completion of the Plagiarism Tutorial found at the student’s Moodle site.
  • A mark of “0” will be given for the assignment with no opportunity to resubmit. This may result in failure of the course.
  • Lowering of final grade in the class by one full letter grade. (This may result in failure of the course.)
  • A mark of “0” will be given for the assignment with no opportunity to resubmit, and a lowering of final grade in the class by one full letter grade. (This may result in failure of the course.)
  • A failing (F) grade will be awarded in the course.
  • Automatic failing (F) grades in all courses in which the student is registered, and no fees will be refunded for that semester. This penalty will only be imposed by the student’s chair/dean/graduate program director with approval from the Chief Academic Officer.
  • Expulsion from Missouri Valley College, permanently recorded on the student’s record. This penalty will result in automatic failing (F) grades in all courses in which the student is registered, and no fees will be refunded for that semester. For a third academic dishonesty offense, automatic penalty is expulsion from the College.