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Citations, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property: Chicago

There are 2 styles to choose from when using Chicago -- you need to ask your professor which style he or she would like you to use. The main differences between the styles are where the references are placed, where the dates are placed and how the titles are capitalized.

The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.

In-text example:

He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful."1

Footnote or Endnote example:

   1. Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623.

2. Reference List/Parenthetical (in-text citations) - Author/Date: in your text, brief references are listed consisting of the author's last name, publication year, and page(s) referred to, with an alphabetized Reference List at the end of your paper.  The reference list at the end of your paper provides complete entries for works cited in parenthetical references.

In-text example:

He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful” (Johns 1998, 623).

Reference list example:

Johns, Adrian. 1998. The nature of the book: Print and knowledge in the making. Chicago: Univ. 

   of Chicago Press.

The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.