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Citations, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property: APA

"References in APA publications ae cited in text with an author-date citation system." - APA Publication Manual, 6 ed.

Each reference cited in text must appear in the references list and vice versa. Generally, a parenthetical citation includes the author's last name and the date.

Example:

Commercial egg producing facilities should have greater government oversight (Jefferson, 2014).

Jefferson (2014) states, "Although factory farms can produce large quantities of food cheaply, animal-welfare advocates call them inhumane, and environmentalists and local residents say they generate pollution and noxious odors and byproducts" (p.147).

"Although factory farms can produce large quantities of food cheaply, animal-welfare advocates call them inhumane, and environmentalists and local residents say they generate pollution and noxious odors and byproducts" (Jefferson, 2014, p.147).

If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Example:

Jefferson (2014) argues for greater government oversight of commercial egg producing facilities.

If there are two, three, four or five authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

Example:

(Smith, Wollensky, & Johnson, 2009).

If there are more than six authors, you can cite all the first author with his/her last name, followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

Example:

(Smith et al., 2007).

If no author is given, cite the text in the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.  Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

Example:

("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).

General Formatting Rules for APA References

  • Create a new page for your References page, numbered sequentially with the rest of the paper.
  • Alphabetize all citations in the References list by author’s last name. If no author is identified, alphabetize by first word of title.
  • Citations should be double-spaced in Times New Roman, size 12 font.
  • If the source does not supply a date of publication/ last updated, use the abbreviation n.d.
  • The first line of an entry is flush with the left margin; subsequent lines are indented 1/2 inch. This is called a "hanging indent."
  • Use only ONE space after punctuation: periods, commas, question marks, colons, quotation marks, etc.
  • Capitalize ONLY the first word of a title, the first of a subtitle, and any proper nouns.
    • Do not drop articles (A, An, or The) from the titles of periodicals

APA References List Examples

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced & have a hanging indent.

Scholarly Journal Article with no DOI, Library Database

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal title,
        Volume(number), page range. Retrieved from database name or URL/permalink.

Murthy, S.L. (2013). The human right(s) to water and sanitation: History, meaning,
         and the controversy over-privatization. Berkeley Journal of International Law,
         31(1), 89-149. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete Ebscohost database.

Scholarly Journal Article with DOI, Library Database

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal title,
        Volume(number), page range. doi: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Marks, S. (2014). Human rights and the challenges of science and
         technology. Science & Engineering Ethics. 20(4), 869-875.
         doi: 10.1007/s11948-014-9518-z

Scholarly Journal Article, Print

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal title,
        Volume(number), page range.

Wagaman, M.A., Geiger, J.M., Shockley, C., & Segal, E.A. (2015).
         The role of empathy in burnout, compassion satisfaction, and secondary
         traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 60(3), 201-209.

Scholarly Journal Article, Online (found by Google search or Google Scholar)

Last Name, First Name. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal title,
        Volume(number), page range. Retrieved from website URL

Al-Sharqi, L., & Hashim, K. (2016). University students' perceptions of social
         media as a learning tool. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 5(1),
         65-88 . Retrieved from http://thejsms.org/index.php/TSMRI/article/view/154/64

Adapted from Honolulu Community College library

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced; the examples provided below are single-spaced to save room in this online guide.

Magazine Article, Library Database

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine Title,
        Volume(number), page range. Retrieved from database name or URL/permalink.

Eadicicco, L. (2016, March 28). To go mainstream, drones are getting better at avoiding
         crashes. Time, (187)11, 20. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete
         Ebscohost database.

Magazine Article, Print

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine Title,
        Volume(number), page range.
 

Eadicicco, L. (2016, March 28). To go mainstream, drones are getting better at avoiding
         crashes. Time, (187)11, 20.

Magazine Article, Online

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Magazine Title,
        Retrieved from URL/permalink

Jenkins, N. (2016, June 2). Dagger buried with King Tut was made with iron from
        meteorite. Time, Retrieved from http://time.com/4354716/tutankhamun-iron
         -dagger-meteorite/

Adapted from Honolulu Community College library

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced; the examples provided below are single-spaced to save room in this online guide.

Newspaper Article, Library Database

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper,
        page number. Retrieved from database name or URL/permalink.

Ingold, J. (2016, April 20). Bill on medical marijuana in Colorado schools clears
         second hurdle. The Denver Post, p. 0Z Retrieved from Newsbank database.

Newspaper Article, Print

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper,
        page number.

Yetter, D. (2015, December 11). Poll: Kentuckians favor Medicaid expansion.
         Courier-Journal, A1.

Newspaper Article, Online

Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Day). Article title: Subtitle. Newspaper,
        Retrieved from URL/permalink

Angier, N. (2016, June 6). After Harambe's death, debating whether gorillas
        belong in zoos. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes
        com/2016/06/07/science/gorilla-shot-harambe-zoo.html

Adapted from Honolulu Community College library

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced; the examples provided below are single-spaced to save room in this online guide.

Print Books 

Lastname, Firstname. (Year) Title of book. City of Publication: Publisher.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: Modern Library, 1950.

eBooks          

Lastname, Firstname. (Year) Title of book. Retrieved from Database or URL/premalink.      

Mia, M. B. (2015). Nutrition of crop plants. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Ebooks.

Adapted from Honolulu Community College library

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced.

Website with author

Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article/Webpage title. Retrieved

    from web address/URL

Dishneau, D. (2016, March 16). Prison dog programs: Lots of love but lack of

           standards. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/news/prison-dog-

programs-lots-love-lack-standards-164044721.html?ref=gs

Sierra Club. (2010, May 12). Kerry, Liberman unveil energy and climate draft.

           Retrieved from http://action.sierraclub.org/site/MessageViewer?

em_id=177341.0

Website with no author

Article/Webpage title. (Year, Month Day). Retrieved from web address/URL

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2016, October 13). Retrieved from

           http://www.msnbc.com/id39625809/ns/world_news-americas/