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Citations, Plagiarism, and Intellectual Property: MLA 8

MLA 8 Basics

MLA 8 contains 3 basic parts: author, title, and container (information about where the source is found).

The container is the information about where the source is found and can be: a journal, publisher, website, database, newspaper, etc.

 

MLA 8 contains 3 basic parts: author, title, and container (information about where the source is found).

The container is the information about where the source is found and can be: a journal, publisher, website, database, newspaper, etc.

In-Text Citations

"References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited." - MLA Handbook, 7 ed.

In MLA style you briefly credit sources with parenthetical citations in the text of your paper. Generally, a parenthetical citation includes the author's last name and the page number(s) of the information used:

Example:

Commercial egg producing facilities should have greater government oversight (Jefferson 97 - 100).

"Although factory farms can produce large quantities of food cheaply, animal-welfare advocates call them inhumane, and environmentalists and local residents say they generate pollution and noxious odors and byproducts" (Jefferson 9).

If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Jefferson argues for greater government oversight of commercial egg producing facilities (97 - 100).

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

Example:

(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

Example:

(Smith et al. 45).

General Formatting Rules for MLA Works Cited

  • Create a separate page for your Works Cited page. This will go at the end of the paper but will contain the same header (last name, page number) as your paper
  • Alphabetize all citations in the Works Cited list by author’s last name. If no author is identified, alphabetize by the first word of the title.
  • The first line of an entry is flush with the left margin; subsequent lines are indented 1/2 inch. This is called a "hanging indent."
  • Citations should be double-spaced in Times New Roman, size 12 font.
  • Articles from a library database: If you're citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should type the online database name in italics. 

MLA Works Cited Page Examples

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced & contain a hanging indent.

Scholarly Journal Article, Library Database

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Version (if applicable),  Numbers
       (vol. #, no. #), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of Database, URL or DOI

Protopopova, Alexandra, et al. "In-Kennel Behavior Predicts Length of Stay in
        Shelter Dogs." Plos ONE, vol. 9, no. 12, (2014), pp. 1-21. Academic Search Complete,

        doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114319
   

 

Scholarly Journal Article, Web (found by Google search or Google Scholar)

If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online-only format that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other location information. It a print edition exists, you must include page numbers. Include date accessed (recommended).  

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. #, no. #,
        Year, page numbers, URL. Accessed day month year.

Harbolt, Tami and Tamara H. Ward. "Teaming Incarcerated Youth with Shelter Dogs
       for a Second Chance." Society and Animals, vol. 9, no. 2, 2001,  pp. 
177-182,                                                                                                               www.animalsandsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/harbolt.pdf . Accessed 6 Oct. 2017.           
                                                 

 

Scholarly Journal Article, Print

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Vol. #, Issue,
        Year, page range.

Pease, James L., Melodi Billera, and Georgia Gerard. "Military Culture and the
         Transition to Civilian Life: Suicide Risk and Other Considerations." Social

         Work, vol. 61, no. 1, 2016, pp. 83-85.

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced and contain a hanging indent.

Magazine or Trade Article, Library Database

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of  Periodical, vol. #, no. #,  Day Month Year, page numbers. Title of Database, URL     

     (permalink) or DOI.

Shapiro, Bruce. "The Executioner's Last Song." Nation, vol. 288, no. 14, 13 Apr. 2009, p. 5. MAS Ultra -
        School Edition (EBSCOhost), http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ulh&AN=37368243&site=ehost-live.

 

Magazine or Trade Article, Online

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical. Publisher, Day Month Year
        published. URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Andrew, Joshua. "How We Grieve on Social Media." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media,
        25 Apr. 2014, www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/04/grieving-in-public-tragedy-on-social-media/360788/2. Accessed 2 June 2016.

 

Magazine or Trade Article, Print

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

Dickinson, Tim. "The War on Drugs." Rolling Stone, 19 May 2016, pp. 30-35.

 

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced & contain a hanging indent.

*Omit A, An, or The as the first word in a newspaper title.

Newspaper Article, Library Database

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year published,
        Section, page no (if given). Database Name,
URL.

Press, The Associated. "Feds Urge Colleges Not to Ask." Seattle Times, 10 May 2016,
        News, p. A2. Newsbank, iw.newsbank.com.libproxy.kctcs.edu/resources/doc/nb/news/15CD0E6DAF3ED558?p=NewsBank.

 

Newspaper Article, Online

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of  Newspaper, Day Month Year
        published, URL (permalink), Accessed Day Month Year.

Cowley, Stacy. "Payday Loans' Debt Spiral to Be Curtailed." New York Times, 2 July 2016, nyti.ms/2k0GaDP, Accessed 12 Aug. 2016.

 

Newspaper Article, Print

Last name, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, Day Month Year,
        Section, page number. 

Perez, Rob. "City Pushes to Keep Its Elevated-Rail Plan." Honolulu Advertiser,
         18 Jan. 2010, Local, p. B2.

 

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced & contain a hanging indent.

eBooks (from a database)          

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year.
         Database Name. URL (permalink). 

 Friese, Carrie. Cloning Wild Life: Zoos, Captivity, and the Future of Endangered Animals. NYU Press, 2013.

       eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=nlebk&AN=611788&site=ehost-live.

 

Print Books 

Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publisher, Year.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Modern Library, 1950.
        

Please note that all citation entries should be double-spaced & contain a hanging indent.

Websites*

Last name, First name. "Title of the Web Page." Title of the Overall Web Site, Day Month Year Published, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Landau, Elizabeth. "CDC: Swine Flu Viruses in U.S. and Mexico Match." CNN, 25 Apr. 2009,

         www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/04/24/swine.flu/index.html. Accessed 9 Oct. 2017.

*Note: The MLA Handbook (8th ed.) advises that date accessed is no longer required when citing web publications, but it is recommended.